Şip Şak Çeviri

hızlı ve kaliteli çeviri

Controlled English Rules for Translation

The most pertinent rules for a Translation-Oriented Controlled Language have been selected from the eight rule sets under analysis and are presented below.

Lexical Rules

Vocabulary Usage
  • Only use dictionary-approved words.
  • Use approved words in the dictionary only as part of speech given.
  • Avoid abbreviations and acronyms.

  • Use standardised spelling.

  • Do not use different words for the same concept.

Pronoun Usage
  • Avoid stand-alone pronouns with indefinite reference, e.g. “mine”, “yours” etc.

  • Avoid ambiguous co-ordination.

Verb Form Usage
  • Avoid present participles.
  • For phrasal verbs, always write the verb next to its particle.
  • Use past participles only as an adjective.

Syntactic Rules

Agreement between Sentence Constituents
  • Ensure that there is agreement between the subject and verb in a sentence.
  • Ensure that article and noun agree.

  • Do not duplicate words unnecessarily.
  • Repeat auxiliaries in verb phrases that are connected by “and”.
  • Repeat the head noun with conjoined adjectives.

  • Make sure that modifiers apply directly to the object they are supposed to modify.
  • Expand post-nominal modifiers into full relative clauses.

  • Make sure that adverbs directly modify a verb.
  • Sentential adverbs should be placed at the start of a sentence.
  • Avoid connecting adverbs such as “thus”, “hence”, “so”, “as such”.

  • Avoid Ellipsis.
  • Do not omit definite or indefinite articles before a noun.
  • Do not omit the relative pronoun “who”, “which” or “that”.
  • Do not omit direct objects.

Noun Cluster Size
  • Noun Clusters should not exceed three nouns.

Pronoun Usage
  • Avoid the use of pronouns, especially if they have an indefinite referent.

  • Use single word prepositions.

  • Keep your tenses simple, e.g. simple present and simple past, infinitive, imperative, and future.

  • Use only the active voice.

Segment Independence
  • Make sure that every segment can stand alone.
  • Do not use footnotes in the middle of a sentence.
  • Do not use parentheses in the middle of a sentence.

Semantic Rules

  • Keep to the approved meaning of a word in the dictionary. Do not use the word with any other meaning.

Text Structure Rules

Sentence Length
  • Keep sentences short (no more than 23 words).
  • Avoid writing sentences of four words or less.
  • Avoid overly complex constructions.

  • Use a comma to separate a subordinate clause at the start of a sentence.
  • Separate list items in a sentence with a comma.
  • Do not use periods inside words or abbreviations.
  • Do not use a semi-colon to separate two independent clauses.
  • Do not end a sentence with a colon.
  • Do not use a slash as a word separator.

Pragmatic Rules

Textual Devices
  • Avoid metaphor, slang, jargon, irony.

by Sharon O'Brien

Reference: Excerpt of "Getting Started with Controlled English" from the article “Controlling Controlled English: An Analysis of Several Controlled Language Rule Sets”, Sharon O’Brien, School of Applied Language and Intercultural Studies, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland


Siz de kaliteli bir çeviri istiyorsanız çeviri ücreti ve süresi almak için tıklayın.